Professor Jian Lu

Dip Ing, MSc, PhD (UTC), Habilitation (UPMC Paris 6), Fellow SEM, Fellow HKAES, Fellow HKIS, Academician: National Academy of Technologies of France

Senior Fellow of Hong Kong Institute for Advanced Study, City University of Hong Kong

Chair Professor at City University of Hong Kong

Member of the National Academy of Technologies, France

Fellow of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, USA

Fellow of the Hong Kong Academy of Engineering Sciences

Professor Jian Lu

Contact Information

Web: Personal Homepage

Research Interests

  • Biomaterials (Ti, Zr, Mg, NiTi, Co, Hydroxyapatite, ZrO2) and biomechanics
  • Integration of advanced materials and processing through computational simulation and computer aided design
  • Mechanical characterization and processing of nanomaterials and advanced structural materials
  • Experimental mechanics and residual stress

Educational Qualifications

1993Habilitation, Mechanics, UPMC (Université Pierre et Marie CURIE) (University of PARIS VI)
1986Doctor (Ph.D), Materials Science and Applied Mechanics, University of Technology of Compiegne (UTC)
1984Diplome d'Etude Approfondie (DEA) (MSc), Materials Science, University of Technology of Compiegne (UTC)


Engineer Diploma, Mechanical Engineering (MEng), and stream: Materials and Technology Innovations, University of Technology of Compiegne (UTC)
1979National scholarship (jan. 79) for studying abroad, Intensive French Language Study at University of Technology of Compiegne (UTC)
1978Peking University, Department of Chemistry
Professor Jian Lu is well known for his research in the fields of surface science and engineering, processing and mechanical properties of nanomaterials and advanced materials, experimental mechanics and residual stress. Professor Lu has published more than 300 SCI journal papers (Science, Nature Materials, Nature Communications, Acta Materialia, Physical Review Letters and Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids) and is the inventor of 10 granted patents in USA, Europe and China with international extension. He has been the receipt of numerous awards including The French Knight Order of National Merit (Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Mérite) in 2006 and Gold Medal with Mention in the 56th World Exhibition of Innovation, Research and New Technologies at Brussels Expo in 2007. He was elected as a Fellow of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM, USA) in 2010 and as an Academician of the National Academy of Technologies of France in 2011. He was also elected as a Fellow of the Hong Kong of Engineering Sciences and of the Hong Kong Institute of Science in 2013.

Professional Experience

Sep 2010 - PresentCity University of Hong Kong
  • Vice-President (Research and Technology) and Dean of Graduate Studies (since 15 Nov 2013)
  • Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering
  • Director of Centre for Advanced Structural Materials (since Aug 2011)
  • Director of Hong Kong Branch of National Precious Metals Material Engineering Research Centre (since Dec 2015)
  • Acting Dean of School of Veterinary Medicine (14 Mar 2014 - 1 Mar 2015)
  • Dean of College of Science and Engineering (2010-14 Nov 2013)
2005 - 2010The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • Chair Professor of Mechanical Engineering
  • Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering
  • Associate Dean of Faculty of Engineering (Feb 2008 - Aug 2010)
1994 - 2005University of Technology of Troyes (UTT)
  • Professor (Promoted to 1st class since 1999 by the National Committee)
  • Head of the Mechanical Systems Engineering Department (1994 - 2004)
  • Director of the Mechanical Systems and Concurrent Engineering Laboratory (LASMIS, FRE CNRS 2719, CNRS and Ministry of Education)
1995 - 1999Co-leader of the UTC (Compiegne)-UTT (Troyes) Doctor Program in Science of Mechanics for Engineer
1993 - 1994Professor (Part time), Mechanical Systems Division
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Technology of Compiegne
1987 - 1994Senior Research Engineer and Head of the Residual Stress and Coating Adhesion Laboratory, Material Department, CETIM (French Technical Center for Mechanical Industries)

Awards and Honors

  • French Knight Order of National Merit (Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Mérite) in 2006
  • Gold Medal with Mention in the 56th World Exhibition of Innovation, Research and New Technologies at Brussels Expo (2007)
  • Fellow of Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM), USA (2010)
  • Elected as Academician, National Academy of Technology of France (NATF) (2011)
  • Elected as Fellow, Hong Kong Academy of Engineering Sciences (HKAES) (2013)
  • Elected as Fellow, Hong Kong Institute of Science (HKIS) (2013)
  • French Knight of the National Order of Légion d’Honneur (Chevalier de la Legion D’honneur) in 2017

Professional Affiliations

Professor Lu serves or served as a member of editorial board:

  • The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, IMechE (Member of Editorial Board)
  • CMC: Computers, Materials & Continua (Member of Editorial Board)
  • Science China Technological Sciences (Member of Editorial Board)
  • ACTA MECHINICA Solida Sinica (Member of Editorial Board)
  • Theoretical & Applied Mechanics Letter (Associate Editors-in-Chief)
  • International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design (Member of Editorial Board)
  • ACTA MECHINICA Sinica (Editor)
  • Experimental Mechanics, SEM, USA (Associate Technical Editor)
  • “Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stresses” organized by SEM. The Fairmont Press and Prentice Hall (Editor)
  • “Residual Stress and Mechanical Design” and “Residual Stress: Manufacturing and Materials Processing”, two handbooks organized by Society for Experimental Mechanics (Editor)
  • “Non-Uniform Plastic Deformation Processing”, Spring Nature Singapore Pte Ltd (Editor) (Dec 2017)

Past and Actual National and International Appointments

  • Expert of French Ministry of Education (DSPT8, Engineering field) for the evaluation of the research laboratories, research programs and education programs
  • Overseas Assessor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (since 1999)
  • Member of the Expert Panel (29 members) for the preparation of EU document entitled: “Future needs and challenges for materials and nanotechnology research” in Oct 2001 for the preparation of 6th EU Research Program (2003 - 2006)
  • Member of International Experts Group (10 members for all the scientific fields) of Chinese MOST (Ministry of Science and Technology) (2004 - 2006)
  • Expert of Evaluation for EU research and technology development programs (GROWTH and CRAFT) (2000 - 2004)
  • Member of International Advisory Committee of the First Chinese National Laboratory: Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science
  • Chairman (1994 - 1998) and Vice-Chairman (1990 - 1994) of the Residual stress division of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM, USA)
  • Chairman of Managing Board of the Sino-European School of Technology (UTSEUS a joint structure of three French Universities and Shanghai University) (2005 - 2008)
  • Special Consultant of Chairman of Managing Board of the Sino-European School of Technology (until 2008)
  • Expert Panel Member of the Hong Kong Automotive Parts and Accessory Systems (APAS) R & D Centre hosted by the Hong Kong Productivity Council (until 2012)
  • Overseas Panel Member of Engineering and Material Sciences of the NSF China (2011 and 2012)
  • Panel Member of Engineering Panel of the Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong, China (Jan 2012 - Oct 2017)
  • 香港工業專業評審局2012 - 14年度董事局成員 Member of Board of Directors of The Professional Validation Council of Hong Kong Industries (Jul 2012 – Jun 2014)
  • 香港工業專業評審局2012年「榮譽院士選舉」、「院士進升計劃」及「副院士推動計劃」終審委員會委員
  • 香港工業專業評審局2016年榮譽院士選舉及資歷院士參選計劃終審委員會委員
  • 香港工業專業評審局學術顧問委員會成員(2016 - 2018年度)
  • External Assessor of Admission Panel for the Technology Business Incubation Programme (Incu-Tech/Incu-Bio Programme) of the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTPC), Hong Kong, China (Aug 2012 - Jul 2014)
  • Member of Gordon Research Committee’s Hong Kong Advisory Board of the Gordon Research Conference (since Jan 2015)
  • Member of the 9th & 10th Nuclear Safety Consultative Committee of the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station and the Lingao Nuclear Power Station, Guangdong, China
  • Preliminary Judging Panel Member of the 2013 Hong Kong Awards for Industries: Technological Achievement of Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTPC), Hong Kong, China
  • International Science and Technology Committee Member of Alstom, France
  • External Reviewer for the Centre for Engineering Materials and Reliability (CEMAR) of HKUST Fok Ying Tung Research Institute (FYTRI), Nansha, China (since Sep 2013)
  • 中國力學學會「中國力學科學技術獎」海外通訊評審專家(15 Oct 2014 - 14 Oct 2019)
  • 第三屆學術委員會副主任,湘潭大學低維材料及其應用技術教部重點實驗室 (18 Oct 2014 - 17 Oct 2019)
  • Member of Innovation and Technology Fund Research Projects Assessment Panel under the Innovation & Technology Fund (1 Jan 2015 - 31 Dec 2018)
  • Expert Assessor of the Australian Research Council for assessment for major Australian Research Council schemes in 2015/2016
  • Member of University Advisory Board of HKUST MIT Research Alliance Consortium (since 2015)
  • Member of the Innovation and Sustainability Board, Bouygues Construction (since 2014)
  • President of National Evaluation Committee of ENSTA ParisTech (National School for Advanced Techniques), The High Council for Evaluation of Research and Higher Education (HCERES) (25 - 29 Jan 2016 & 6 Apr 2016)
  • President of Joint Committee with the Evaluation Committee of the Ecole Polytechnique; The High Council for Evaluation of Research and Higher Education (HCERES) (25 - 29 Jan 2016 & 6 Apr 2016)
  • Member of the 15 Jul 2016 Preliminary Judging Panel of the 2016 Hong Kong Awards for Industries: Technological Achievement, Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTP)
  • Member of the Research Grant Council (RGC) of Hong Kong, China (1 Jul 2016 – 30 Jun 2018)
  • Council Member of Hong Kong Academy of Engineering Sciences
  • Council Member of Hong Kong Institution of Science (3 Dec 2016 – Nov/Dec 2018)
  • Member of Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (Special Steering Committee on establishing nuclear engineering discipline) (since Oct 2016)

External Research project grants received in Hong Kong since 2007

Project Title with Prof. Jian LU as PISource of fundingPeriod
  1. Investigation of High Strength, High Ductility Nanostructured Material
  1. Study of the Role of Residual Stress Distribution on the Mechanical Behaviour of the Metallic Glass
  1. Design and Realization of Structural Materials with High Strength and High Ductility
RGC Collaborative Research Fund2009-2013
  1. Study of Fracture Mechanisms of Ultrahigh Strength Steels with Nanometer Scale Twins
  1. Control and Impact of Residual Stresses on the Mechanical Behaviour of Bulk Metallic Glasses
RGC France/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme2008-2010
  1. Development of SMAT Platform for Biomedical Device and Implants Using High Diffusion Properties Material
HK Innovation and Technology Support Programme2007-2009
  1. Development of the Layered Nanostructured Metallic Sheet/Plate for Structural Applications
HK Innovation and Technology Support Programme (NAMI)2008-2010
  1. Residual Stress Measurement Dedicated to Structural Aeronautical Composite Part with Organic Matrix
  1. Study of the Mechanical Properties of Advanced Materials with Nanotwins
Croucher Foundation, CAS_Croucher Funding Scheme for Joint Laboratories2010-2015
  1. Synthesis and High Performance of Hierarchical Nanostructured Metal
  1. Development of Advanced Structural Steel with High Density Nano/Submicron Twin for Lightweight Products
  1. Enhancement of Hardness Property of Precious Metal of Various Purity for Jewellery Industry by Using Surface Nanocrystallization
  1. Development of High-performance Energy Absorption Structures Based on the Structure Optimization and Material Enhancement
  1. High-performance TiO2-based Pollutant Degradation Devices Manufactured Directly From Ti Foil Enabled By The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment
  1. Research & Development of the key technology for improving aircraft bearing fatigue performance
Shenzhen Technology Research Project2015-2017

Selected Recent Publications

  1. Tong W.P., Tao N.R., Wang Z.B., Lu J., Lu K. Nitriding iron at lower temperatures, Science, Jan. 2003, p. 686-688.
  2. Zhang H.W., Hei Z.K., Liu G., Lu J., Lu K. Formation of nanostructured surface layer on AISI 304 stainless steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment, Acta Materialia, 51, April 2003, p. 1871-1881.
  3. Wang Z.B., Tao N.R., Tong W.P., Lu J., Lu K. Diffusion of chromium in nanocrystalline iron produced by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment, Acta Materialia, Vol. 51, August 2003, p. 4319-4329.
  4. Cao Y.P., Lu J. Depth-sensing instrumented indentation with dual sharp indenters: stability analysis and corresponding regularization schemes, Acta Materialia, Vol.52, p 1143-1153, March 2004.
  5. Cao Y.P., Lu J., A new method to extract the plastic properties of metal materials from an instrumented spherical indentation loading curve, Acta Materialia, 52 (13): 4023-4032 AUG 2 2004.
  6. Huang L.Y., Lu J., Xu K.W., "Elasto-plastic deformation and fracture mechanism of a diamond-like carbon film deposited on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate in nano-scratch test", Thin solid film, 466 (1-2): 175-182 NOV 1 2004.
  7. Cao Y.P., Lu J., Size-dependent sharp indentation-I: A closed-form expression of the indentation loading curve, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Jan. 2005, vol. 53, pp33-48.
  8. Cao Y.P., Lu J., Size-dependent sharp indentation-II: A reverse algorithm to identify plastic properties of metallic materials, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Jan. 2005, vol 53, pp49-62.
  9. Wu X., Tao N., Hong Y., Liu, G., Xu B., Lu J., Lu K., Strain-induced grain refinement of cobalt during surface mechanical attrition treatment, Acta Materialia, 53 (3): 681-691 Feb. 2005.
  10. Chen X.H., Lu J., Lu L., Lu K., Tensile properties of a nanocrystalline 316L austenitic stainless steel, Scripta Materialia, 52 (2005) 1039-1044, May 2005.
  11. T.Roland, D.Retraint, K.Lu, J.Lu, Fatigue life improvement through surface nanostructuring of stainless steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment, Scripta Materialia, Volume 54, Issue 11, June 2006, Pages 1949-1954.
  12. K.Wang, N.R.Tao, G.Liu, J.Lu, K.Lu, Plastic strain-induced grain refinement at the nanometer scale in copper, Acta Materialia, 54, Issue 19, 5281-5291, Nov. 2006.
  13. Y.M.Lin, J.Lu, L.P.Wang, T.Xu, Q.J.Xue, Surface nanocrystallization by surface mechanical attrition treatment and its effect on structure and properties of plasma nitrided AISI 321 stainless steel, Acta Materialia, Volume 54, Issue 20, December 2006, pp5599-5605.
  14. Y.P.Cao, M.Dao, J.Lu, A precise correcting method for the study of the superhard material using nanoindentation tests, Journal of Materials Research - Vol. 22, No. 5, May, 2007, 1255-1265.
  15. X.L.Wu, N.R. Tao, Q.M. Wei, P. Jiang, J.Lu, K. Lu , Microstructural evolution and formation of nanocrystalline intermetallic compound during surface mechanical attrition treatment of cobalt, Acta Materialia, Volume 55, Issue 17, October 2007.
  16. M.Wen, J.F.Gu, G.Liu, Z.B.Wang, J.Lu, Nanocrystalline Titanium to Mesoporous Anatase with High Bioactivity, Crystal Growth & Design, Vol 7., N.12, Dec. 2007, pp2400-2403.
  17. L.Zhang, Y.Han, J.Lu, Nanocrystallization of zirconium subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment, Nanotechnology, Volume:19, Issue:16, Article Number: 165706 Published: APR 2008.
  18. A.Y.Chen, D.F.Li, J.B.Zhang, H.W.Song, J.Lu, Make nanostructured metal exceptionally tough by introducing non-localized fracture behaviors, Scripta Materialia, Volume 59, Issue 6, September 2008, Pages 579-582.
  19. Y.Yang, J.C.Ye, J.Lu, F.X.Liu, P.K.Liaw, Effects of specimen geometry and base material on the mechanical behavior of focused-ion-beam-fabricated metallic-glass micropillars, Acta Materialia, Volume 57, Issue 5, March 2009, Pages 1613-1623.
  20. Y.G.Zheng, J.Lu, H.W.Zhang, Z.Chen, Strengthening and toughening by interface-mediated slip transfer reaction in nanotwinned copper, Scripta Materialia, Volume 60, Issue 7, April 2009, Pages 508-511.
  21. Fan JT, Chen AY, Fu MW, J.Lu, A novel structural gradient metallic glass composite with enhanced mechanical properties, Scripta Materialia: Volume 61, Issue 6, Sept 2009, Pages 608-611.
  22. Y.H.Li, M.W.Yang, D.N.Wang, J.Lu, T.Sun, K.T.V.Grattan, Fiber Bragg gratings with enhanced thermal stability by residual stress relaxation, Optics Express, 26 October 2009, Vol. 17, No. 22, pp 19785-19790.
  23. J.C.Ye, J.Lu, Y.Yang, P.K.Liaw, Study of the intrinsic ductile to brittle transition mechanism of the metallic glasses, Acta Materialia, 57(20): 6037-6046, Dec 2009.
  24. H.H.Ruan, A.Y.Chen, J.Lu, Characterization of Plastically Graded Nanostructured Material: Part I the Theories and the Inverse Algorithm of Nanoindentation, Mechanics of Materials, Volume 42, Issue 5, May 2010, Pages 559-569.
  25. D.F.Li, C.F.Li, H.Qing, J.LuThe elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks International Journal of Solids and Structure, Vol. 47, Issue 14, July 2010 pp1753-1763.
  26. H.H.Ruan, A.Y.Chen, H.L.Chan, J.Lu, Characterization of Plastically Graded Nanostructured Material: Part II the Experimental Validation in Surface Nanostructured Material, Mechanics of Materials, Volume 42, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 698-708.
  27. X.Guo, A.Y.T.Leung, , A.Y.Chen, H.H.Ruan, J.Lu, Investigation of non-local cracking in layered stainless steel with nanostructured interface, Scripta Materialia, Volume 63, Issue 4, August 2010, Pages 403-406.
  28. J.C.Ye, J.Lu, C.T.Liu, Q.Wang, Y.Yang, Atomistic Free-Volume Zones and Inelastic Deformation of Metallic-Glasses Characterized by High-Frequency Dynamic Micropillar Tests, Nature Materials, Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 619-623.
  29. H.L.Chan, H.H.Ruan, A.Y.Chen, J.Lu, Optimization of strain-rate to achieve exceptional mechanical properties of 304 stainless steel using high speed ultrasonic SMAT, Acta Materialia, Volume 58, Issue 15, September 2010, Pages 5086-5096.
  30. X.J.Liu, Y.Xu, X.Hui, Z.P.Lu, F.Li, G.L.Chen, J.Lu, C.T.Liu, Metallic Liquids and Glasses: Atomic Order and Global Packing, Physical Review Letters, Volume 105, Issue 15, 155501, October 2010.
  31. H.Li, M.W.Fu, J.Lu, H.Yang, Ductile fracture: experiments and computations, International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 27, Issue 2, Feb. 2011, pp147-180.
  32. A.Y.Chen, H.H.Ruan, J.Wang, H.L.Chan, Q.Wang, Q. Li, J.Lu, The influence of strain rate on the microstructure transition of 304 stainless steel, Acta Materialia, Volume 59, Issue 9, May 2011, pages 3697-3709.
  33. Q.Wang, C.T.Liu, Y.Yang, Y.D.Dong, J.Lu, Atomic-Scale Structural Evolution and Stability of Supercooled Liquid of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass, Physical Review Letters, May 2011, Volume 106, Issue 21, N. 215505.
  34. L.L.Zhu, H.H.Ruan, X.Y.Li, M.Dao, H.J.Gao, J.Lu, Modeling grain size dependent optimal twin spacing for achieving ultimate high strength and related high ductility in nanotwinned metals, Acta Materialia, August 2011, Volume 59, Issue 14, pages 5544-5557.
  35. H.H.Ruan, L.C.Zhang, J.Lu, A new constitutive model for shear banding instability in metallic glass, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Oct. 2011, Vol. 48, Issue 21, pages: 3112-3127.
  36. J.Frontan, Y.M.Zhang, M.Dao, J.Lu, F.Galvez, A.Jerusalem, Ballistic performance of nanocrystalline and nanotwinned ultrafine crystal steel, Acta Materialia, Feb. 2012, Volume 60, Issue 3, pages 1353-1367.
  37. L.L.Zhu, J.Lu, Modelling the plastic deformation of nanostructured metals with bimodal grain size distribution, International Journal of Plasticity, March 2012, Volumes 30-31, Pages 166-184.
  38. L.L.Zhu, S.Q.Shi, K.Lu, J.Lu, A statistical model for predicting the mechanical properties of nanostructured metals with bimodal grain size distribution, Acta Materialia, Volume 60, Issue 16, September 2012, Pages 5762-5772.
  39. Y.F.Wu, J.Lu, Preventing Debonding at the Steel to Concrete Interface through Strain Localization, Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 45, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages 1061-1070.
  40. Q.Wang, C.T.Liu, Y.Yang, J.B.Liu, Y.D.Dong, J.Lu, The atomic-scale mechanism for the enhanced glass-forming-ability of a Cu-Zr based bulk metallic glass with minor element additions, Scientific Reports, Vol.4, Article number: 4648; APR 11 2014.
  41. Q.Wang, Y.Yang, H.Jiang, C.T.Liu, H.H.Ruan, J.Lu, Superior Tensile Ductility in bulk metallic glass with gradient amorphous structure, Scientific Reports, Vol.4, Article Number: 4757;  April 2014
  42. H.N.Kou, J.Lu, Y.Li, High-Strength and High-Ductility Nanostructured and Amorphous Metallic MaterialsAdvanced Materials, August 2014, 26, p5518–5524
  43. L.L.Zhu, S.Q.Qu, X.Guo, J.Lu, Analysis of the twin spacing and grain size effects on mechanical properties in hierarchically nanotwinned face-centered cubic metals based on a mechanism-based plasticity model, Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids,Volume:76, Pages:162-179, MAR 2015
  44. Q.Wang, S.T.Zhang, Y.Yang, Y.D.Dong, C.T.Liu, J.Lu, Unusual fast secondary relaxation in metallic glass, Nature Communications, 24 July 2015, doi:10.1038/ncomms8876
  45. Y.F.Ye, Q.Wang, J.Lu, C.T.Liu, Y.Yang, High-entropy alloy: challenges and prospects, Materials Today, Volume: 19, Issue: 6, Pages: 349-362, July-August, 2016
  46. Y.W.Zhan, S.S.Zeng, H.D.Bian, Z.Li, Z.T.Xu, J.Lu, Y.Y.Li, Bestow metal foams with nanostructured surfaces via a convenient electrochemical method for improved device performance, Nano Research, Volume: 9, Issue: 8, Pages: 2364-2371, AUG 2016
  47. L.L.Zhu, H.H.Ruan, A.Y.Chen, X.Guo, J.Lu, Microstructures-based constitutive analysis for mechanical properties of gradient-nanostructured 304 stainless steels, Acta Materialia, Vol. 128 , April 2017, pages375-390
  48. Zhang, L.C.Chan, T.Gao, Q.Wang, S.Zeng, H.Bian, C.Lee, Z.T.Xu, Y.Y.Li, J.Lu, Bulk monolithic electrodes enabled by surface mechanical attrition treatment-facilitated dealloying, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 4, Issue: 39, Pages: 15057-15063, Oct. 2016
  49. G.Wu, K.C.Chan, L.L.Zhu, L.G.Sun, J.Lu, Dual-phase nanostructuring as a route to high strength magnesium alloys, Nature, 4 May 2017, pp 80-83. 
    This paper was selected as a cover story of the issue.